Can occur in many ways: blunt trauma, high impact, weak bones to name a few. If you have a stress fracture, they do not always show up on x-ray.
A progressive deformity of the great toe joint and little toe joints, respectively. There are relatively few non-surgical options, unfortunately. Not all bunions and hammertoes are created equal. There are many ways to perform bunion and hammertoe surgeries depending on the severity of your deformity, your overall health, and several other factors.
Enlarged or calcified areas of existing bones. They are notorious for causing corns and callus areas of the feet.
A structural deformity usually caused by abnormal foot biomechanics (how your bones and tendons function together). It can also be caused by abnormal fusions of bones in the hindfoot (tarsal coalition) that often become symptomatic in the early teenage years. Non-surgically, orthotics help to maintain foot and arch structure by resisting over-pronation forces.